Asymmetry: molecular, biologic, embryopathic, and clinical perspectives

Am J Med Genet. 2001 Jul 15;101(4):292-314. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1217.


This overview of asymmetry addresses the following topics: chiral molecules; asymmetric signaling molecules, including N-cadherin, Shh, Fgf8, lefty1, lefty2, nodal, Pitx2, activin betaB, activin receptor IIA, and cSnR; situs abnormalities; asymmetric cell division; laterality in humans and animals; behavioral asymmetry in humans and animals; asymmetric embryopathies, including Tessier-type "clefts"; hemiasymmetries such as hemihyperplasia, hemihypoplasia, and hemiatrophy; asymmetric vascular syndromes, including Klippel-Trenaunay and Sturge-Weber syndromes; plagiocephaly of the synostotic and deformational types; somatic mosaicism, including a discussion of McCune-Albright syndrome, fibrous dysplasia, GNAS1 mutations, and Proteus syndrome.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Body Patterning / genetics
  • Cell Division / genetics
  • Congenital Abnormalities / embryology
  • Congenital Abnormalities / genetics*
  • Congenital Abnormalities / pathology
  • Eye Abnormalities / embryology
  • Eye Abnormalities / genetics
  • Eye Abnormalities / pathology
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans