Aims: To evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of repaglinide, a novel prandial glucose regulator, in comparison with glipizide in the treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes.
Methods: Diet or tablet-treated patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 256; age 40-75 years, body mass index (BMI) 20-35 kg/m2, HbA1c 4.2-12.8%), without signs of severe microvascular or macrovascular complications, were included in this double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group comparative trial. Patients were randomized at a 2:1 ratio to repaglinide, 1-4 mg at mealtimes, or glipizide, 5-15 mg daily.
Results: Changes in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA1c during the 12 months of treatment showed a significant difference in favour of repaglinide. In oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA)-naive patients, HbA1c decreased in the repaglinide and glipizide groups by 1.5% and 0.3%, respectively (P < 0.05 between groups). Fasting blood glucose decreased in the repaglinide group by 2.4 mmol/l and increased in the glipizide group by 1.0 mmol/l (P < 0.05 between groups). In the study population as a whole, repaglinide was able to maintain glycaemic control (HbA1c level) during the 1-year study period, whereas control deteriorated significantly with glipizide. Change in HbA1c from baseline was significantly better with repaglinide than with glipizide after 12 months (P < 0.05). In addition, FBG deteriorated significantly in the glipizide group compared with the repaglinide group (P < 0.05). No patients in either group experienced a major hypoglycaemic event; the number of patients experiencing minor hypoglycaemia was similar in the repaglinide and glipizide groups (15% and 19%, respectively).
Conclusions: Repaglinide, given as a prandial glucose regulator, is shown to be an effective and safe treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes, and is better than glipizide in controlling HbA1c and FBG levels, overall, and in OHA-naive patients.