Association of Mycoplasma genitalium persistence in the urethra with recurrence of nongonococcal urethritis

Sex Transm Dis. 2001 Aug;28(8):472-6. doi: 10.1097/00007435-200108000-00010.


Background: Most patients with recurrent symptomatic nongonococcal urethritis receive negative test results for Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum, and the cause of such recurrence usually is unknown.

Goal: To assess the association of Mycoplasma genitalium with recurrent nongonococcal urethritis.

Study design: In this study, 72 men with nongonococcal urethritis were treated with levofloxacin. Before and after treatment, symptoms and signs were assessed and first-pass urine was examined for C trachomatis, M genitalium, U urealyticum, and Mycoplasma hominis by polymerase chain reaction-based assays.

Results: In 6 of 45 men who had no symptoms and no evidence of inflammation after treatment, nongonococcal urethritis recurred. Of these 6 men, 5 had positive test results for M genitalium before levofloxacin treatment, which remained positive afterward. After the second treatment for recurrent nongonococcal urethritis, one man was still had a positive test result for the mycoplasma and experienced a subsequent recurrence.

Conclusions: This study suggests that the persistence of M genitalium in the urethra may be associated with recurrence of nongonococcal urethritis.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary / therapeutic use*
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Bacterial / urine*
  • Humans
  • Levofloxacin*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mycoplasma / isolation & purification*
  • Mycoplasma Infections / drug therapy
  • Mycoplasma Infections / microbiology*
  • Ofloxacin / therapeutic use*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Recurrence
  • Urethritis / drug therapy
  • Urethritis / microbiology*


  • Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Levofloxacin
  • Ofloxacin