Background: Most patients with recurrent symptomatic nongonococcal urethritis receive negative test results for Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum, and the cause of such recurrence usually is unknown.
Goal: To assess the association of Mycoplasma genitalium with recurrent nongonococcal urethritis.
Study design: In this study, 72 men with nongonococcal urethritis were treated with levofloxacin. Before and after treatment, symptoms and signs were assessed and first-pass urine was examined for C trachomatis, M genitalium, U urealyticum, and Mycoplasma hominis by polymerase chain reaction-based assays.
Results: In 6 of 45 men who had no symptoms and no evidence of inflammation after treatment, nongonococcal urethritis recurred. Of these 6 men, 5 had positive test results for M genitalium before levofloxacin treatment, which remained positive afterward. After the second treatment for recurrent nongonococcal urethritis, one man was still had a positive test result for the mycoplasma and experienced a subsequent recurrence.
Conclusions: This study suggests that the persistence of M genitalium in the urethra may be associated with recurrence of nongonococcal urethritis.