Relationship between insulin resistance and uremic toxins in the gastrointestinal tract

Nephron. 2001 Aug;88(4):384-6. doi: 10.1159/000046026.


The relationship between insulin resistance and local uremic toxins was examined using an oral adsorbent. Fourteen rats demonstrating a diabetic state underwent two-thirds, nephrectomy and were divided into two groups. The control group was fed standard rat chow, and the test group was fed standard rat chow containing 5% AST-120. The target level of blood glucose was achieved by controlling the dosage of exogenous insulin. All rats were sacrificed at week 6. Body weight, blood glucose level, and renal function at week 6 were not significantly different between both groups. However, the mean blood glucose level and the mean dose of exogenous insulin in the AST-120-fed group were significantly reduced as compared with the control group. The results of the present study indicate that administration of an oral adsorbent in diabetic nephropathy decreases the doses of exogenous insulin and improves insulin resistance, and that uremic toxins which exist in the gastrointestinal tract play important roles.

MeSH terms

  • Adsorption
  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen
  • Body Weight
  • Carbon / therapeutic use
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / blood
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / metabolism*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / prevention & control
  • Digestive System / metabolism*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Enterotoxins / blood
  • Enterotoxins / metabolism*
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Male
  • Oxides / therapeutic use
  • Proteinuria / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Uremia / blood
  • Uremia / metabolism*
  • Uremia / prevention & control


  • Blood Glucose
  • Enterotoxins
  • Insulin
  • Oxides
  • Carbon
  • AST 120
  • Creatinine