Efficacy of Bach-flower remedies in test anxiety: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with partial crossover

J Anxiety Disord. 2001 Jul-Aug;15(4):359-66. doi: 10.1016/s0887-6185(01)00069-x.


Bach-flower remedies are a type of alternative medication used increasingly for over-the-counter self-help purposes. We studied the efficacy of a combination of Bach-flower remedies in subjects with test anxiety in a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded parallel group design, with crossing over the placebo group to remedies after the first phase. Anxiety was measured by a standardized, validated test anxiety questionnaire (the German version of the Test Anxiety Inventory, TAI-G). Fifty-five of 61 subjects with self-reported test anxiety gave valid data. There was no significant difference between the groups, but a significant decrease of test anxiety in all groups was present. We conclude that Bach-flower remedies are an effective placebo for test anxiety and do not have a specific effect.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety / drug therapy*
  • Complementary Therapies*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nonprescription Drugs
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Test Anxiety Scale


  • Nonprescription Drugs
  • Plant Extracts