Control and prevention of rubella: evaluation and management of suspected outbreaks, rubella in pregnant women, and surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome

MMWR Recomm Rep. 2001 Jul 13;50(RR-12):1-23.


Outbreaks of rubella continue to occur in the United States despite widespread use of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Throughout the mid- to late-1990s, rubella outbreaks were characterized by increased numbers of cases among adults born in countries that do not have or have only recently instituted a national rubella vaccination program. To address this change in disease epidemiology, CDC's National Immunization Program (NIP) developed the following recommendations in conjunction with public health officials in the field. Public health officials should implement appropriate responses to reports of suspected rubella to determine if an outbreak exists, evaluate its scope, and implement appropriate control measures. Health-care providers should be aware of the need for rubella prevention and control among women of childbearing age and of the appropriate follow-up for pregnant women exposed to rubella. Comprehensive surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome should begin during a rubella outbreak.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Communicable Disease Control / standards
  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine / administration & dosage
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / prevention & control
  • Rubella / diagnosis
  • Rubella / epidemiology
  • Rubella / prevention & control*
  • Rubella Syndrome, Congenital / epidemiology
  • Rubella Syndrome, Congenital / prevention & control
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vaccination


  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine