Carotid bifurcation: evaluation of time-resolved three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography

Radiology. 2001 Aug;220(2):525-32. doi: 10.1148/radiology.220.2.r01au43525.


A magnetic resonance (MR) angiographic protocol was evaluated in the carotid bifurcation with use of a pulse sequence for time-resolved three-dimensional imaging of contrast material kinetics. The enhancement ratio, a quantitative measure of contrast enhancement, indicated that all studies included an image obtained near the peak of the intraarterial concentration of contrast agent (enhancement ratio, 90% +/- 9 [standard deviation]). Studies acquired at a higher frame rate (4.1-4.9 seconds) exhibited less venous enhancement (enhancement ratio, 25% +/- 16) than studies acquired with slower (6.0-9.6-second) frame rates (enhancement ratio, 46% +/- 25).

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Carotid Arteries / diagnostic imaging*
  • Contrast Media
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography / methods*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Radiography


  • Contrast Media