Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) were identified as signal transducers for the TNF receptor superfamily. However, the exact roles of TRAF2 and TRAF5 in TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation still remain controversial. To address this issue, we generated TRAF2 and TRAF5 double knockout (DKO) mice. TNF- but not interleukin-1-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB was severely impaired in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from DKO mice. Moreover, DKO MEFs were more susceptible to TNF-induced cytotoxicity than TRAF2 knockout MEFs. Collectively, these results indicate that both TRAF2 and TRAF5 are involved in TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation and protection from cell death.