Variation in CAPN10, the gene encoding the ubiquitously expressed cysteine protease calpain-10, has been associated with type 2 diabetes in Mexican Americans and in two northern-European populations, from Finland and Germany. We have studied CAPN10 in white subjects of British/Irish ancestry, using both family-based and case-control studies. In 743 sib pairs, there was no evidence of linkage at the CAPN10 locus, which thereby excluded it as a diabetes-susceptibility gene, with an overall sib recurrence risk, lambda(S), of 1.25. We examined four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP-44, -43, -19, and -63) previously either associated with type 2 diabetes or implicated in transcriptional regulation of calpain-10 expression. We did not find any association between SNP-43, -19, and -63, either individually or as part of the previously described risk haplotypes. We did, however, observe significantly increased (P=.033) transmission of the less common C allele at SNP-44, to affected offspring in parents-offspring trios (odds ratio 1.6). An independent U.K. case-control study and a small discordant-sib study did not show significant association individually. In a combined analysis of all U.K. studies (P=.015) and in combination with a Mexican American study (P=.004), the C allele at SNP-44 is associated with type 2 diabetes. Sequencing of the coding region of CAPN10 in a group of U.K. subjects revealed four coding polymorphisms-L34V, T504A, R555C, and V666I. The T504A polymorphism was in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the diabetes-associated C allele at SNP-44, suggesting that the synthesis of a mutant protein and/or altered transcriptional regulation could contribute to diabetes risk. In conclusion, we were not able to replicate the association of the specific calpain-10 alleles identified by Horikawa et al. but suggest that other alleles at this locus may increase type 2 diabetes risk in the U.K. population.