Hormonal and barrier contraception and risk of upper genital tract disease in the PID Evaluation and Clinical Health (PEACH) study

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Jul;185(1):121-7. doi: 10.1067/mob.2001.115114.


Objective: Among women diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease, we examined the associations between hormonal or barrier methods of contraception and upper genital tract infection or inflammation.

Methods: Participants were 563 patients from a treatment trial for pelvic inflammatory disease. All had pelvic pain; pelvic organ tenderness; and leukorrhea, mucopurulent cervicitis, or untreated cervicitis. Contraceptive use within the prior 4 weeks was compared among women with baseline upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia, women with endometritis without upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia, and women with neither upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia nor endometritis.

Results: Inconsistent condom use was significantly and independently associated with a 2 to 3 times elevated risk for upper genital tract infection. Upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia was not significantly associated with use of oral contraceptives, use of medroxyprogesterone, condoms used consistently, nor other barrier methods.

Conclusion: No hormonal or barrier contraceptive method was related to a reduction in upper genital tract disease among women with clinical pelvic inflammatory diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Chlamydia Infections / epidemiology
  • Cocaine / administration & dosage
  • Condoms*
  • Continental Population Groups
  • Contraceptive Devices, Female*
  • Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal* / administration & dosage
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Educational Status
  • Endometritis / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Genital Diseases, Female / epidemiology*
  • Gonorrhea / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Infections
  • Medroxyprogesterone / administration & dosage
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease / diagnosis
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease / epidemiology*
  • Pelvic Pain
  • Smoking
  • Uterine Cervicitis / microbiology


  • Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal
  • Medroxyprogesterone
  • Cocaine