Although patient series of clinical, electrophysiological, or magnetic resonance imaging evidence for involvement of the central nervous system in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) have been published, the histological proof has never been reported. We present the case of a 46-year-old male patient who developed CIDP in his early 20s and who died of relapsing severe pneumonia. In late stages of the disease the patient presented visual loss and bilateral atrophy of the optic nerve. Neuropathological examination revealed severe peripheral neuropathy consistent with CIDP and central involvement with bilateral optic neuritis. This is the first case reporting CIDP and histologically proven optic neuritis.