To determine national trends in mortality due to invasive mycoses, we analyzed National Center for Health Statistics multiple-cause-of-death record tapes for the years 1980 through 1997, with use of their specific codes in the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes 112.4-118 and 136.3). In the United States, of deaths in which an infectious disease was the underlying cause, those due to mycoses increased from the tenth most common in 1980 to the seventh most common in 1997. From 1980 through 1997, the annual number of deaths in which an invasive mycosis was listed on the death certificate (multiple-cause [MC] mortality) increased from 1557 to 6534. In addition, rates of MC mortality for the different mycoses varied markedly according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status but were consistently higher among males, blacks, and persons > or =65 years of age. These data highlight the public health importance of mycotic diseases and emphasize the need for continuing surveillance.