Microdialysis in freely moving mice: determination of acetylcholine, serotonin and noradrenaline release in galanin transgenic mice

J Neurosci Methods. 2001 Aug 15;109(1):71-80. doi: 10.1016/s0165-0270(01)00403-4.


In the present study, we describe micro-surgical methods for simultaneous implantation of a microdialysis probe and an intraventricular injection cannula via their respective guide cannulas into the mouse brain. Basal and stimulated release of acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) was determined in the ventral hippocampus of freely moving mice. NA and 5-HT were determined in one run by a newly developed HPLC method based on precolumn derivatization with benzylamine and fluorescence detection. The mice with a loss-of-function mutation of the galanin gene (KO) and the mice that over-expressed galanin (OE) were studied. No significant differences in basal, potassium-stimulated or scopolamine-induced extracellular ACh levels were observed in 4-month-old wild-type (WT) and KO mice. In the aged, 10-month-old animals, the basal extracellular ACh levels were significantly reduced in both WT and KO groups. Galanin (1 nmol i.c.v.) caused a significant reduction of basal extracellular NA by about 40% in both WT and galanin OE mice, however, in the latter group the effect was delayed by almost 2 h. A 10-min forced swimming stress caused a higher increase in release of NA and 5-HT in the OE group than in the corresponding WT mice. Finally, venlafaxin (10 mg/kg i.p.) increased extracellular NA to 400% of the control values in the CBA mice, but only to 250% in the C57BL mice. It is concluded that galanin may play an important role in the cholinergic mechanisms underlying cognitive disorders. Furthermore, modulation by galanin and by behavioral activation, of NA and 5-HT neurotransmission in galanin over-expressing mice indicates its possible role in the aetiology of mood disorders.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcholine / analysis*
  • Animals
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / instrumentation
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods*
  • Cyclohexanols / pharmacology
  • Galanin / deficiency*
  • Galanin / genetics
  • Galanin / pharmacology
  • Hippocampus / drug effects
  • Hippocampus / metabolism
  • Injections, Intraventricular / instrumentation
  • Injections, Intraventricular / methods*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Microdialysis / instrumentation
  • Microdialysis / methods*
  • Movement / physiology
  • Muscarinic Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Neurochemistry / instrumentation
  • Neurochemistry / methods
  • Neurons / drug effects
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Norepinephrine / analysis*
  • Potassium / pharmacology
  • Scopolamine / pharmacology
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Serotonin / analysis*
  • Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
  • Wakefulness / physiology


  • Cyclohexanols
  • Muscarinic Antagonists
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
  • Serotonin
  • Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
  • Galanin
  • Scopolamine
  • Acetylcholine
  • Potassium
  • Norepinephrine