Fibrocartilage in the transverse ligament of the human atlas

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001 Aug 15;26(16):1765-71. doi: 10.1097/00007632-200108150-00007.


Study design: Immunohistochemical investigation.

Objective: To determine whether molecules typical of articular cartilage are present in the transverse ligament and whether the ligament may be a target for an autoimmune response in rheumatoid arthritis.

Summary of background data: In chronic rheumatoid arthritis there is often a marked instability of the atlantoaxial complex, and the transverse ligament can show degenerative changes that compromise its mechanical function. In some rheumatoid patients there can be an autoimmune response to cartilage link protein, aggrecan, and Type II collagen.

Methods: Transverse ligaments were removed from 13 cadavers and fixed in 90% methanol. Cryosections were immunolabeled with antibodies against proteoglycans (aggrecan, link protein, and versican), glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and keratan sulfate), and collagens (Types I, II, III, and VI).

Results: Labeling for aggrecan and link protein was characteristic of the fibrocartilages, but versican was only detected in the fibrous regions. Equally, Types I, III, and VI collagens and keratan, dermatan, and chondroitin-4-sulfates were found throughout the ligament, but labeling for Type II collagen and chondroitin-6-sulfate was restricted to the fibrocartilages.

Conclusion: The presence of molecules typical of articular cartilage (aggrecan, link protein, and Type II collagen) in the transverse ligament explains why it can be a target for destruction in rheumatoid arthritis and also suggests that it is subject to constant compression against the dens rather than only at the extremes of movement.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Atlanto-Axial Joint / anatomy & histology*
  • Atlanto-Axial Joint / chemistry
  • Cartilage / anatomy & histology*
  • Cartilage / chemistry
  • Collagen / analysis
  • Female
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
  • Glycosaminoglycans / analysis
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Ligaments, Articular / anatomy & histology*
  • Ligaments, Articular / chemistry
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proteoglycans / analysis


  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • Proteoglycans
  • Collagen