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, 36 (8), 817-21

Impact of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug and Aspirin Use on the Prevalence of Dyspepsia and Uncomplicated Peptic Ulcer Disease


Impact of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug and Aspirin Use on the Prevalence of Dyspepsia and Uncomplicated Peptic Ulcer Disease

M Voutilainen et al. Scand J Gastroenterol.


Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and aspirin (here collectively called NSAIDs) use is the second most common aetiologic factor for peptic ulcer disease and a major factor for peptic ulcer complications. The role of NSAIDs in the pathogenesis of uncomplicated peptic ulcer is less well understood and the interaction between NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori infection on ulcer development is controversial. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of NSAIDs in the occurrence and clinical features of uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease.

Methods: A total of 1091 consecutive patients referred for open-access upper gastrointestinal endoscopy by general practitioners (GPs) were enrolled. The use of NSAIDs was gathered from a structured questionnaire completed by the patients and from patient files by GPs. The exclusion criteria were previous H. pylori eradication and gastric surgery, as well as symptoms and/or signs suggestive of acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

Results: Of the whole study group (n = 1091), 76 (7%) patients had a peptic ulcer. Thirty patients had an NSAID-use-associated peptic ulcer and 46 patients a non-NSAID-use peptic ulcer. Of patients with chronic gastritis (n = 599), 71% were H. pylori-positive and 108 used NSAIDs. Of those with chronic gastritis, 23 had an NSAID-use-associated peptic ulcer and 38 a non-NSAID ulcer. Of patients with normal gastric histology (n = 492), 75 patients used NSAIDs, 7 had an NSAID ulcer and 8 a non-NSAID ulcer. The only independent risk factor for peptic ulcer in patients using NSAIDs was H. pylori infection (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-7.3), whereas dyspepsia (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.4-2.4), male sex (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.4), age (OR 1.0 per decade, 95% CI 0.8-1.3) and anaemia (OR 2.9, 95% CI 0.9-8.7) were not risk factors. In patients not using NSAIDs, independent risk factors for peptic ulcer were dyspepsia (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.1-8.8), male sex (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-2.8), age (OR 1.2 per decade, 95% CI 1.0-1.5), anaemia (OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.6-14.9) and H. pylori infection (OR 7.5, 95% CI 3.4-16.6). When comparing patients using NSAIDs or not, the OR of patients on NSAIDs for peptic ulcer was 2.7 (95% CI 1.5-5.0) among patients with chronic H. pylori gastritis (n = 424) and 5.3 (95% CI 1.8-15.0) among patients with normal gastric mucosa (n = 492).

Conclusions: The use of NSAIDs increases the risk of peptic ulcer 3- and 5-fold in H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients, respectively. Dyspepsia is a poor predictor of peptic ulcer among patients using NSAIDs, and serologic H. pylori testing and treatment for chronic NSAID users is recommended.

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