Conflicting results regarding the association of a polymorphism at codon 72 of the p53 tumour suppressor gene and susceptibility to develop human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical cancer have been published over the last year, implicating differences in ethnic background, sample origin, sample size and/or detection assay. The material for this study was collected in the identical geographical region as for 2 previous reports with contradictory results regarding the association of codon 72 genotype with squamous cell cancer (SCC). We have used an alternative detection assay, based on pyrosequencing technology, that interrogates the variable position by the accuracy of DNA polymerase. In addition to cervical clinical specimens from SCC, HPV16- and HPV18-infected adenocarcinoma cases as well as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were investigated. No significant association was found between p53 codon 72 genotype and the risk to develop adenocarcinoma, SCC or CIN in the Swedish population.