Non- Candida albicans species have emerged as important bloodstream pathogens. They tend to have decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents in vitro and cause infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. Fluconazole resistance can emerge in any Candida spp., but is most commonly seen with Candida krusei, for which resistance is universal, and with Candida glabrata. Amphotericin B resistance has also been increasingly reported, most notably in isolates of Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii. Efforts are underway to correlate in-vitro antifungal susceptibility of individual Candida isolates with response to therapy of patients with candidemia. Future advances in this field might allow physicians to identify Candida isolates resistant to specific antifungal agents and thereby tailor therapy of candidemia. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.