Although p48 is the most conserved subunit of mammalian DNA polymerase alpha-primase (pol-prim), the polypeptide is the major species-specific factor for mouse polyomavirus (PyV) DNA replication. Human and murine p48 contain two regions (A and B) that show significantly lower homology than the rest of the protein. Chimerical human-murine p48 was prepared and coexpressed with three wild-type subunits of pol-prim, and four subunit protein complexes were purified. All enzyme complexes synthesized DNA on single-stranded (ss) DNA and replicated simian virus 40 DNA. Although the recombinant protein complexes physically interacted with PyV T antigen (Tag), we determined that the murine region A mediates the species specificity of PyV DNA replication in vitro. More precisely, the nonconserved phenylalanine 262 of mouse p48 is crucial for this activity, and pol-prim with mutant p48, h-S262F, supports PyV DNA replication in vitro. DNA synthesis on RPA-bound ssDNA revealed that amino acid (aa) 262, aa 266, and aa 273 to 288 are involved in the functional cooperation of RPA, pol-prim, and PyV Tag.