Over the years, most researchers have approached corneal epithelial and stromal wound healing as separate events. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that even the simplest epithelial debridement wound results in keratocyte death and a subsequent stromal response to regenerate the affected area. Thus, the interaction between stromal and epithelial healing must be considered to fully understand corneal wound healing. Although wound healing has been an active area of research for many years, the advent of refractive surgery has stimulated research into the regulation of wound repair and provided important insights into the molecular components involved in repair. Epithelial and stromal wound healing are influenced by extracellular matrix components. The purpose of the current article is to review progress in the year 2000 toward understanding mechanisms involved in corneal wound healing and how extracellular matrix affects the healing processes.