Targeting of colorectal liver metastases by regional gene therapy was tested in a clinically relevant syngeneic model. First, the CEA-CD-113 retroviral vector containing the cytosine deaminase gene controlled by the CEA specific tumour cell promoter, was shown in vitro to convert 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil, resulting in cancer cell killing with a large bystander effect. Second, 10 days after the establishment of liver metastases, retroviral vectors were delivered to the liver by hepatic artery injection. After 5-fluorocytosine administration for 7 days, most surface metastases disappeared and tumour volumes were suppressed up to 8.2-fold. The results support the development of this approach for patient treatment.