In Uganda, the HIV Network for Prevention Trials (HIVNET) 012 study recently demonstrated that single-dose nevirapine (Nvp) prophylaxis is effective for preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This exploratory study examines the relationship between HIV-1 subtype, MTCT, and the development of Nvp resistance (Nvp(R)) in women enrolled in HIVNET 012. For 102 women (32 whose infants were HIV-1 infected by age 6-8 weeks and 70 whose infants were uninfected), HIV-1 subtypes included 50 (49%) subtype A, 35 (34%) subtype D, 4 (4%) subtype C, 12 (12%) recombinant subtype, and 1 unclassified. There was no apparent difference in the rate of MTCT among women with subtype A versus D (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-3.43). Nvp(R) mutations were detected more frequently at 6-8 weeks postpartum in women with subtype D than in women with subtype A (adjusted OR, 4.94; 95% CI, 1.21-20.22). Additional studies are needed to further define the relationship between HIV-1 subtype and Nvp(R) among women receiving Nvp prophylaxis.