Compared with countries worldwide, the United States currently has one of the lowest peritoneal dialysis (PD) populations as compared with its hemodialysis (HD) population. Approximately 12% of the total dialysis population in the United State is on PD. This figure correlates with the take-on rate [percentage of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients enrolling in PD programs] of about 12%-15% in the United States. Over a two-year period, we prospectively examined the role that developing a comprehensive infrastructure and support system had on expanding our PD program. The changes made included these: nephrologists placing PD catheters using the laparoscopic method; active identification of, and training for, family members and personnel in nursing homes and daycare centers to perform PD; improvements in home conditions through support by social workers; early ESRD patient education; and provision of in-center intermittent PD (IPD) for selected patients. We then compared the results from the two years after commencement of the changes against the two years before the changes were made. Training of personnel in nursing homes increased enrollment from 3 to 11 patients (p = 0.01); training of personnel in daycare centers increased enrollment from 0 to 5 patients (p = 0.05); training family members and providing family support increased enrollment from 4 to 15 patients (p = 0.03); early patient and family education increased enrollment from 4 to 24 patients (p = 0.008); improving home conditions increased enrollment from 1 to 14 patients (p = 0.01); and providing an IPD program for selected patients added 6 patients (p = 0.05). Introducing a program for nephrologists to place PD catheters by the laparoscopic technique decreased catheter mechanical failure (and subsequent transfer to HD), from 22 to 3 patients (p = 0.005). Our PD take-on rate (percentage of ESRD patients choosing PD modality) increased from 19% to 76% (p = 0.002). The total number of patients in the PD program over the two years after initiation of the changes increased from 33 to 93 (p = 0.01), while the number of HD patients decreased from 168 to 142 (p = 0.05). Developing a comprehensive infrastructure and support system for PD programs permits enrollment of patients who otherwise would have been excluded as PD candidates and eliminates loss of PD patients to HD. Implementation of such programs can contribute considerably to enhancing the PD population growth rate.