Mizolastine is a new histamine H1 receptor antagonist. Mizolastine 10 mg/day is effective in allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. In young healthy volunteers, absorption of mizolastine is rapid with time (tmax) to peak concentration (Cmax) of about 1 hour. The absolute bioavailability of mizolastine 10mg tablets is about 65%. Distribution is rapid with a mean distribution half-life of 1.5 to 1.9 hours. Mizolastine is >98% bound to serum albumin and the apparent volume of distribution is between I and 1.4 L/kg. Mizolastine is extensively metabolised by hepatic glucuronidation and sulphation, with no major active metabolite, and excreted in faeces. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2beta) is 7.3 to 17.1 hours. The apparent oral clearance after a repeated oral dose of 10mg is 6.02 L/h, with steady state reached from day 3 and no accumulation between days 1 and 7. Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) are linearly related to dose. Mizolastine appears in vivo to be a relatively weak inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2E1, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4. In vivo, no interactions were observed between mizolastine and lorazepam or ethanol. A significant increase in Cmax and trough plasma concentration (Cmin) of digoxin occurred after coadministration with mizolastine, without change in AUC, tmax or clinical parameters. Significant increases in theophylline Cmin and AUC were observed after coadministration with mizolastine. Mizolastine Cmax and AUC were increased when coadministered with erythromycin, with no change in t1/2beta. Concomitant administration of mizolastine and ketoconazole increased mizolastine AUC values with no change in t1/2beta. In a population analysis of the pharmacokinetics of mizolastine in patients with allergies, parameter values were close to those in healthy volunteers, except for duration of absorption, which was almost doubled in the patients. Bodyweight and creatinine clearance were found to have little influence on oral clearance, and no influence of liver transaminases was found on clearance and distribution. Pharmacokinetic parameters of mizolastine in elderly individuals were similar to those observed in healthy young volunteers. In patients with chronic renal insufficiency, t1/2beta was prolonged by 47% compared with young healthy volunteers. In patients with cirrhosis, tmax was longer, Cmax was lower, distribution half-life was prolonged and AUC was 50% higher than in healthy volunteers. In pharmacodynamic-pharmacokinetic trials, the percentage of wheal and flare inhibition was found to correlate with mizolastine Cmin values. No direct relationship was found between drug concentrations in skin blister fluid and antihistamine activity.