To study prospectively the risk factors and etiology of urolithiasis in all stone patients aged <15 years admitted from 1991 to 1999 to the Arabkir hospital in Yerevan. Stones were obtained by surgery (64%), extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) (7%) or cystoscopic extraction (4%); 25% passed spontaneously. All were examined by infrared spectroscopy, and spot urines were analyzed chemically. 198 patients, 180 (68% males) with renal stones and 18 (83% males) with primary bladder stones, were studied. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) was the predominant constituent in 62% of the kidney stones, followed by struvite (17%), calcium phosphate (7%), uric acid (7%), ammonium acid urate (5%), and cystine (2%). Bladder stones contained CaOx in 72%, uric acid in 22% and ammonium acid urate in 6% of patients. Etiology was obviously metabolic in 5% and possibly metabolic in 26%. Twenty percent of stones were infectious, and 19% were endemic (9% bladder and 10% kidney stones); 4% were secondary to urinary stasis with malformation but no infection. Etiology in 26% remained unknown. Stone composition and metabolic etiology are similar to that in central Europe and North America. In contrast, infectious calculi and particularly endemic stones are still common, although becoming less so now. Urolithiasis in Armenia thus reflects the transition from a rural to an urban society.