Objective: Environmental factors other than gliadin exposure and certain HLA haplotypes may play a role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. Previous studies have suggested a strong inverse relationship between cigarette smoking and celiac disease. We sought to determine the relationship between celiac disease and cigarette smoking in our patient population.
Methods: All newly diagnosed adults with biopsy-proven celiac disease evaluated at Mayo Clinic Rochester between January 1, 1993, and June 30, 1998, were identified. Three clinic patients who were matched to each case on geographical area of residence, age, gender, and calendar year of visit served as controls. Smoking information was obtained from a standard medical questionnaire that was completed by all clinic patients at the time of registration. The adjusted odds ratio for celiac disease in current and former smokers relative to nonsmokers was estimated with a matched three-to-one conditional logistic regression model.
Results: A total of 82 adults with biopsy-proven celiac disease were identified. At the time of diagnosis, the proportion of current smokers was 10% in cases and 10% in controls, yielding an adjusted odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI = 0.5-4.3). In all, 34% of cases were former smokers versus 28% of controls, yielding an odds ratio of 1.6 (95% CI = 0.8-3.2).
Conclusion: This case-control study was unable to detect an association between cigarette smoking and celiac disease.