Preoperative prediction of postoperative edema and effusion in pediatric cardiac surgery by altered antigen expression patterns on granulocytes and monocytes

Cytometry. 2001 Aug 15;46(4):247-53. doi: 10.1002/cyto.1135.


Postoperative edema and effusion (POEE) following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery in children retards recovery and may aggravate postpericardiotomy (PPS), capillary leak syndrome (CLS), or multiorgan failure (MOF). Compared with complication-free children, POEE affected children have different preoperative serum levels of circulating cytokines and adhesion molecules. These levels may be used preoperatively to assess POEE, but their determination is time consuming, costly, and a substantial blood volume is required. Altered serum levels of cytokines and adhesion molecules also may be reflected in altered antigen expression on circulating blood leukocytes. The predictive potential of flow cytometric (FCM) leukocyte immunophenotyping was explored as a sensitive and fast method that required small blood samples. Blood samples taken 24 h preoperatively from 49 patients (3-18 years old) were stained with monoclonal antibodies for adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, LFA-1, Mac-1) or constitutive/activation markers (CD4, CD14, CD16, CD25, CD54, CD69, HLA-DR) and measured on a microbead calibrated FCM. Neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils from POEE patients express higher preoperative levels of LFA-1, monocytes, HLA-DR, and other activation markers (all P < 0.03). Over 89% of the patients were classified correctly by using two discriminant analysis methods (sensitivity, >76%; specificity, >86%; positive prediction, >80%; negative prediction, >83%). Granulocytes and monocytes of postoperative POEE patients exhibit significant preoperative immune activation, suggesting an increased risk for patients with atopic/allergic predisposition. Surgical trauma and CPB cause additional immune activation, leading to POEE by a summative response. Most patients at risk for POEE can be identified preoperatively by using data pattern analysis on FCM-derived parameters.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Antigens, Surface / blood*
  • Ascitic Fluid / metabolism
  • Ascitic Fluid / pathology*
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Discriminant Analysis
  • Edema / diagnosis*
  • Edema / etiology
  • Edema / metabolism
  • Female
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Granulocytes / metabolism*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / surgery
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Monocytes / metabolism*
  • Pericardial Effusion / diagnosis*
  • Pericardial Effusion / etiology
  • Pericardial Effusion / metabolism
  • Pleural Effusion / diagnosis*
  • Pleural Effusion / etiology
  • Pleural Effusion / metabolism
  • Postoperative Complications / diagnosis*
  • Postoperative Complications / metabolism
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Preoperative Care / methods
  • Sensitivity and Specificity


  • Antigens, Surface