Background and aims: A substantial number of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) fail to achieve a complete clinical response with 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and azathioprine (AZA). Inability to achieve therapeutic 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) levels due to the preferential overproduction of 6-methylmercaptopurine ribonucleotides (6-MMPR) upon dose escalation characterizes a newly described subgroup of IBD patients resistant to 6-MP/AZA therapy. Treatment with 6-thioguanine (6-TG), a related thiopurine, which forms 6-TGNs more directly may be beneficial in such patients. This pilot study evaluated the safety, tolerance, and efficacy of 6-TG in the subgroup of Crohn's disease (CD) patients failing to attain adequate disease control with traditional 6-MP/AZA therapy.
Methods: Ten CD patients with preferential 6-MMPR production upon 6-MP/AZA dose escalation were enrolled in an open-label pilot study. Seven of 10 patients had experienced dose-related 6-MP toxicities.
Results: Seventy percent of the patients (7 of 10) responded or were in remission at week 16. Clinical response was evident by week 4 in most. 6-TGN levels were nine-fold higher with 6-TG treatment than with 6-MP, whereas 6-MMPR levels were undetectable. No patient developed a recurrence of hepatic or hematological toxicity.
Conclusions: 6-TG was a safer and more efficacious thiopurine in this subgroup of IBD patients resistant to 6-MP therapy. Larger controlled trials are warranted to further evaluate both the short- and long-term safety and efficacy in this subgroup of patients as well as a broader spectrum of IBD patients.