This pilot study investigated the efficacy of initiating a smoking cessation intervention early in inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence versus shortly after an inpatient stay. Thirty-six male smokers recruited from an inpatient substance abuse treatment program were randomly assigned to begin smoking cessation either two weeks (concurrent treatment) or six weeks (delayed treatment) after admission to the substance abuse program. Smoking cessation treatment involved three sessions of individual smoking cessation treatment plus eight weeks of transdermal nicotine replacement. Significantly fewer participants began the delayed treatment than the concurrent treatment. Few participants were smoking-abstinent at follow-up, and the timing of treatment onset did not have an impact on smoking outcome. Clinical trials with larger samples may be needed to better evaluate the efficacy of concurrent versus delayed treatment and to test the efficacy of more aggressive interventions with smokers in early alcohol recovery.