Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome is a recently recognized disorder with characteristic radiologic findings that mainly involve the white/gray matter of the parieto-occipital lobes. This complex syndrome is associated with cyclosporine A therapy or a variety of other conditions in which blood pressure rises acutely. Twelve patients from a variety of conditions who met the diagnostic criteria for this syndrome were studied. Interestingly, three of these patients had intra-abdominal neurogenic tumors, which have rarely been reported. Initial cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed fairly symmetric areas of increased T(2) signal involving both white and gray matter of parieto-occipital lobes in the majority of the patients. However, the lesions were often located outside the parieto-occipital regions. Four patients had occipital region magnetic resonance spectroscopy during the acute phase, which revealed high lactate peak and normal N-acetyl aspartate/creatine and choline peaks. With appropriate treatment, most patients recovered from this syndrome and experienced almost complete resolution of brain lesions on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. One patient, however, continued to have small residual hemosiderin deposits on a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging with neurologic sequellae. In conclusion, a better understanding of this complex syndrome may obviate unnecessary investigations and allow management of the associated problems in prompt and appropriate ways.