Multi-resistance to antimicrobial agents for the ten most frequently isolated bacterial pathogens

Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2001 Aug;18(2):147-60. doi: 10.1016/s0924-8579(01)00357-0.


Cross-resistance and multi-resistance to selected antibiotics was determined for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Amikacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae often showed cross-resistance to ss-lactam antibiotics. Only 1% of the Escherichia coli isolates showed resistance to more than four antibiotics from a set of seven. This rate was higher for other Enterobacteriaceae and there were high levels of cross-resistance for P. aeruginosa. The cross-resistance of oxacillin with other antibiotics is well known in staphylococci. Penicillin-resistant pneumococcal isolates were cross-resistant to macrolides. Cross-resistance was only a minor problem in H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Cross- and multi-resistance are important problems for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria but not for fastidious bacteria with the exception of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial*
  • Enterobacteriaceae / drug effects
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / drug effects*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / isolation & purification
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / microbiology
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria / drug effects*
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria / isolation & purification
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / microbiology
  • Haemophilus influenzae / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests / methods
  • Moraxella catarrhalis / drug effects
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects
  • Staphylococcus / drug effects
  • Streptococcaceae / drug effects


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents