Cross-resistance and multi-resistance to selected antibiotics was determined for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Amikacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae often showed cross-resistance to ss-lactam antibiotics. Only 1% of the Escherichia coli isolates showed resistance to more than four antibiotics from a set of seven. This rate was higher for other Enterobacteriaceae and there were high levels of cross-resistance for P. aeruginosa. The cross-resistance of oxacillin with other antibiotics is well known in staphylococci. Penicillin-resistant pneumococcal isolates were cross-resistant to macrolides. Cross-resistance was only a minor problem in H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Cross- and multi-resistance are important problems for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria but not for fastidious bacteria with the exception of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae.