A cell-based system that recapitulates the dynamic light-dependent regulation of the vertebrate clock

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Aug 28;98(18):10178-83. doi: 10.1073/pnas.181228598. Epub 2001 Aug 21.


The primary hallmark of circadian clocks is their ability to entrain to environmental stimuli. The dominant, and therefore most physiologically important, entraining stimulus comes from environmental light cycles. Here we describe the establishment and characterization of a new cell line, designated Z3, which derives from zebrafish embryos and contains an independent, light-entrainable circadian oscillator. Using this system, we show distinct and differential light-dependent gene activation for several central clock components. In particular, activation of Per2 expression is shown to be strictly regulated and dependent on light. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Per1, Per2, and Per3 all have distinct responses to light-dark (LD) cycles and light-pulse treatments. We also show that Clock, Bmal1, and Bmal2 all oscillate under LD and dark-dark conditions with similar kinetics, but only Clock is significantly induced while initiating a light-induced circadian oscillation in Z3 cells that have never been exposed to a LD cycle. Finally, our results suggest that Per2 is responsible for establishing the phase of a circadian rhythm entraining to an alternate LD cycle. These findings not only underscore the complexity by which central clock genes are regulated, but also establishes the Z3 cells as an invaluable system for investigating the links between light-dependent gene activation and the signaling pathways responsible for vertebrate circadian rhythms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Circadian Rhythm / genetics
  • Circadian Rhythm / physiology*
  • Circadian Rhythm / radiation effects*
  • Darkness
  • Gene Expression / radiation effects
  • Kinetics
  • Light
  • Photoperiod
  • Zebrafish