Prevalence, incidence, and type-specific persistence of human papillomavirus in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative women

J Infect Dis. 2001 Sep 15;184(6):682-90. doi: 10.1086/323081. Epub 2001 Aug 24.


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and related immunosuppression are associated with excess risk for cervical neoplasia and human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence. Type-specific HPV infection was assessed at 6-month intervals for HIV-positive and HIV-negative women (median follow-up, 2.5 and 2.9 years, respectively). The type-specific incidence of HPV infection was determined, and risk factors for HPV persistence were investigated by statistical methods that accounted for repeated measurements. HIV-positive women were 1.8, 2.1, and 2.7 times more likely to have high-, intermediate-, and low-risk HPV infections, respectively, compared with HIV-negative women. In multivariate analysis, high viral signal, but not viral risk category, was independently associated with persistence among HIV-positive subjects (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-2.9). Furthermore, persistence was 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5-2.3) times greater if the subject had a CD4 cell count <200 cells/microL (vs. >500 cells/microL). Thus, HIV infection and immunosuppression play an important role in modulating the natural history of HPV infection.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • HIV Seronegativity*
  • HIV Seropositivity / complications*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Papillomaviridae* / classification
  • Papillomaviridae* / isolation & purification
  • Papillomavirus Infections / complications
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / physiopathology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking
  • Time Factors
  • Tumor Virus Infections / complications
  • Tumor Virus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Tumor Virus Infections / physiopathology
  • United States / epidemiology