Sequencing of reverse-transcriptase genes and recombinant virus assays were performed on paired isolates from antiretroviral drug-naive patients randomized to stavudine and didanosine (group 1; n = 21) or zidovudine and lamivudine (group 2; n = 21) at baseline and after > or = 12 months of follow-up. The T215Y mutation emerged in 13 (61.9%) and 2 (9.5%) isolates in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P < .0001). Furthermore, in group 1, mutations associated with multidideoxynucleoside resistance were selected in 3 isolates. In group 2, all isolates carried the M184V mutation. The median fold changes in susceptibilities to zidovudine, stavudine, and lamivudine were 16.4 and 1, 2.2 and 0.6, and 4.5 and > 38 in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P < .0001, all comparisons). These results suggest that the combination of stavudine and didanosine is associated more frequently with the emergence of zidovudine resistance and a decrease in susceptibility to stavudine than the combination of zidovudine and lamivudine.