Fifty-five patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were examined for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for ANCA against myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin (LF), proteinase 3 (PR3), elastase (HLE), and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) was performed. The prevalence of ANCA by IIF was 29.1% (16/55 patients). MPO-ANCA were found in 10.9% (6/55), LF-ANCA in 18.2% (10/55), PR3-ANCA in 12.7% (7/55), BPI-ANCA in 23.6% (13/55), and HLE-ANCA in 1.8% (1/55). The levels of BPI-, LF-, and PR3-ANCA correlated with disease activity. A significant association between serositis and the presence of BPI-, LF-, and PR3-ANCA was observed, and PR3-ANCA were found to be associated with arthritis as well. Our results demonstrate that ANCA of various specificities occur in SLE, and BPI appears to be an important target antigen.