Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide is a growth factor for beta (INS-1) cells by pleiotropic signaling

Mol Endocrinol. 2001 Sep;15(9):1559-70. doi: 10.1210/mend.15.9.0688.


Activation of the G-protein-coupled receptor for glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide facilitates insulin-release from pancreatic beta-cells. In the present study, we examined whether glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide also acts as a growth factor for the beta-cell line INS-1. Here, we show that glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide induced cellular proliferation synergistically with glucose between 2.5 mM and 15 mM by pleiotropic activation of signaling pathways. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide stimulated the signaling modules of PKA/cAMP regulatory element binder, MAPK, and PI3K/protein kinase B in a glucose- and dose-dependent manner. Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activators of transcription 5/6 pathways were not stimulated by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. Activation of PI3K by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucose was associated with insulin receptor substrate isoforms insulin receptor substrate-2 and growth factor bound-2 associated binder-1 and PI3K isoforms p85alpha, p110alpha, p110beta, and p110gamma. Downstream of PI3K, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-stimulated protein kinase Balpha and protein kinase Bbeta isoforms and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3, forkhead transcription factor FKHR, and p70S6K. These data indicate that glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide functions synergistically with glucose as a pleiotropic growth factor for insulin-producing beta-cells, which may play a role for metabolic adaptations of insulin-producing cells during type II diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Division
  • Cell Line
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / pharmacology*
  • Glucose / pharmacology
  • Growth Substances / metabolism*
  • Immunoblotting
  • Islets of Langerhans / cytology
  • Islets of Langerhans / metabolism*
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Precipitin Tests
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Rats
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*


  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • Growth Substances
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Glucose