Autoantibody against human liver-type arginase was detected in blood of patients treated with partial liver transplantation and consisted of all subclasses of IgG, i.e., IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4, and IgM. We newly constructed an ELISA system for the antibodies by the aid of arginase protein immunopurified from extracts of human liver tissues. Addition of 2.0 mol/l urea in 0.1 mol/l citrate buffer(pH 4.5) was effective for elimination of immunoglobulins, such as IgG and IgM, and rheumatoid factors adsorped non-specifically to liver-type arginase-autoantibody complexes on the plate. We found that, during a short period of about two months after operation, in successful cases, liver-type arginase increased, remarkably and repeatedly, in blood of recipients followed by elevation of IgM level within a week and also IgG2 level two or three weeks later. Thus the change in IgG2 level seemed to depend on those of the arginase and/or IgM. However, in unsuccessful cases, such fluctuation was not so clear as the successful cases. To be noteworthy was production of autoantibodies directed to liver-type arginase in blood of patients with liver injury although the arginase, as well as AST and ALT, is an enzyme which leaks out of liver tissue. Appearance of the autoantibodies in blood supports occurrence of liver injury, in part, in graft liver because the enzyme exists exclusively in the liver. Among immunoglobulins to liver-type arginase, IgG2 seemed to be the most helpful index to know rightly postoperative conditions of recipients of liver transplantation, and its measurement could be useful for long-term follow-up of the patients.