Localization of the 3' IgH locus elements that effect long-distance regulation of class switch recombination

Immunity. 2001 Aug;15(2):187-99. doi: 10.1016/s1074-7613(01)00181-9.


Four transcriptional enhancers lie downstream of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus: Calpha3'/hs3a, hs1,2, hs3b, and hs4. Although individually weak, these elements have strong transcriptional synergies when combined and they altogether behave as a locus control region. Previous knockout experiments in the 3' region have shown that both hs3a and hs1,2 are dispensable for normal expression and rearrangement of the IgH locus but that their replacement with a transcribed neo gene severely affects class switch recombination. Here we show that even in the absence of a neo gene, joint deletion of the last two 3' enhancers, hs3b and hs4, severely impairs germline transcription and class switching to most isotypes and may in addition affect mu gene expression in resting B cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic
  • Heterozygote
  • Homozygote
  • Immunoglobulin Class Switching / genetics*
  • Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains / genetics*
  • Immunoglobulin Isotypes / biosynthesis
  • Immunoglobulin M / biosynthesis
  • Immunoglobulin mu-Chains / genetics
  • Locus Control Region / genetics*
  • Lymphoid Tissue
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • Recombination, Genetic*
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Spleen / immunology


  • Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
  • Immunoglobulin Isotypes
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Immunoglobulin mu-Chains
  • RNA, Messenger