Infection with transmissible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can occur in uncolonised patients, but cross infection (superinfection) of patients already colonised withP aeruginosa has not been reported. With genotypic identification, we found superinfection by a multiresistant transmissible strain of P aeruginosa in four patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) who were already colonised by unique strains of P aeruginosa. No evidence of environmental contamination was found, but all patients became superinfected after contact with colonised individuals during inpatient stays. Inpatients with CF who are colonised with P aeruginosa should be separated by strain type. Such strain typing can only be reliably done by genomic methods, but this has resource implications.