Quantitative differences are observed for most complex behavioral and pharmacological traits within any population. Both environmental and genetic influences regulate such individual differences. The mouse has proven to be a superb model in which to investigate the genetic basis for quantitative differences in complex behaviors. Genetically defined populations of mice, including inbred strains, heterogeneous stocks, and selected lines, have been used effectively to document these genetic differences. Recently, quantitative trait loci methods have been applied to map the chromosomal regions that regulate variation with the goal of eventually identifying the gene polymorphisms that reside in these regions.