Antibodies against oxidized LDL--theory and clinical use

Physiol Res. 2001;50(2):131-41.


Modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles due to oxidation, glycation and binding of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) or malondialdehyde (MDA, a final product of lipid peroxidation) is considered most important in the process of atherogenesis. Oxidatively modified LDL are distinguished by another receptor type, which was discovered on the surface of macrophages and was called the scavenger receptor. Uncontrolled intake of LDL converts macrophages to foam cells; their accumulation under the vascular endothelium is considered as the first stage of atherosclerosis. Oxidation of LDL is a complex process taking place in both the extra- and intracellular space. At the end of this oxidative process, modified LDL particles show chemotactic, cytotoxic and immunogenic properties. Oxidized LDL express a large number of epitopes and cause production of polyclonal autoantibodies against these products, especially against apoB100 modified by MDA and 4-hydroxynonenal. IgoxLDL (antibodies against oxidized LDL) can be demonstrated either directly in intimal lesions or as a component of circulating immune complexes. IgoxLDL do not form a homogeneous group but a varied mixture of antibodies-isoantibodies caused by HDL and LDL polymorphism, antibodies against the lipid phase of LDL and antibodies against modified apoB100 of the immunoglobulin class IgA or IgG. Antibodies against oxLDL were found in many diseases other than atherosclerosis such as diabetes mellitus, renovascular syndrome, uremia, rheumatic fever, morbus Bechtjerev or lupus erythematodes. Newborns have practically the same levels of IgoxLDL as their mothers; however, these values did not differ from those in the healthy population of non-pregnant women of the same age. The decrease in IgoxLDL titer was very slow and lasted many months; that is why this parameter cannot be considered suitable for describing the rapid changes during oxidative stress of the organism. Positive correlation of IgoxLDL with antiphospholipids and other antibodies was repeatedly demonstrated; their determination can thus be used as a marker for the description of total production of autoantibodies in various diseases. The changes and correlations of IgoxLDL, anti-beta-2-glycoprotein I IgG and antiphospholipid antibodies support the immunological link between thrombotic and atherosclerotic processes in the human body.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arteriosclerosis / immunology*
  • Arteriosclerosis / therapy*
  • Autoantibodies / immunology*
  • Autoantibodies / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / immunology*
  • Oxidative Stress / immunology


  • Autoantibodies
  • Lipoproteins, LDL
  • oxidized low density lipoprotein