Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a condition characterized by hepatomegaly, elevated serum aminotransferase levels, and a histologic picture similar to alcoholic hepatitis in the absence of alcohol abuse. Most patients with NASH are obese women, and many have diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, or hypertriglyceridemia. NASH has also been associated with a number of metabolic conditions, surgical procedures, and drug treatments. Most patients are asymptomatic. The most common sign of NASH is hepatomegaly. Stigmata of chronic liver disease are rare. Laboratory abnormalities include a 2-4-fold elevation of serum aminotransferase levels; other liver function test results are usually normal. Histologically, there is moderate to severe macrovesicular steatosis and lobular hepatitis with necrosis or ballooning degeneration and/or fibrosis. The pathogenesis of NASH is poorly understood, but lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress are the leading culprits. The natural history of NASH is unknown, but NASH seems to be a stable disease in most patients. Treatment of NASH is unproven, but weight reduction is recommended in obese patients. Small pilot studies of several drugs have shown promise, but large randomized clinical trials are awaited. Orthotopic liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage liver disease secondary to NASH.