The relationships between types of fat consumed and serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, total and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were examined in 69 Japanese men aged 43-88 years. Diet was assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Intake of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats was inversely correlated with serum total testosterone after controlling for age, total energy, body mass index, alcohol intake, and smoking status, but the correlation was statistically significant only for polyunsaturated fat (r = -0.29, p = 0.02). Intakes of eicosapentanoic and docosahexaenoic acids, n-3 fatty acids from fish, were significantly inversely correlated with total testosterone (r = -0.25, p = 0.04 and r = -0.32, p = 0.01, respectively). Serum estrone, estradiol, and free testosterone were not significantly correlated with any type of fat studied. The correlations of total testosterone with n-3 fatty acids from fish remained significant after additional adjustment for the other categories of fat (r = -0.27, p = 0. 03 for eicosapentanoic acid and r = -0.32, p = 0.01 for docosahexaenoic acid), while the correlations with saturated and monounsaturated fats became nearly null after the adjustment.