Nocardiopsis strains were isolated from water-damaged indoor environments. Two strains (N. alba subsp. alba 704a and a strain representing a novel species, ES10.1) as well as strains of N. prasina, N. lucentensis, and N. tropica produced methanol-soluble toxins that paralyzed the motility of boar spermatozoa at <30 microg of crude extract (dry weight) x ml(-1). N. prasina, N. lucentensis, N. tropica, and strain ES10.1 caused cessation of motility by dissipating the mitochondrial membrane potential, Deltapsi, of the boar spermatozoa. Indoor strain 704a produced a substance that destroyed cell membrane barrier function and depleted the sperm cells of ATP. Indoor strain 64/93 was antagonistic towards Corynebacterium renale. Two indoor Nocardiopsis strains were xerotolerant, and all five utilized a wide range of substrates. This combined with the production of toxic substances suggests good survival and potential hazard to human health in water-damaged indoor environments. Two new species, Nocardiopsis exhalans sp. nov. (ES10.1T) and Nocardiopsis umidischolae sp. nov. (66/93T), are proposed based on morphology, chemotaxonomic and physiological characters, phylogenetic analysis, and DNA-DNA reassociations.