In this review, the principles of evidence-based health care and their application to radiology are discussed. Evidence-based health care involves the more formal integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and explicit acknowledgment of patient values in clinical decision making, as compared with conventional practice. Recently, many health care disciplines have adopted the principles and practice of evidence-based health care. In radiology, including its diagnostic and interventional aspects, these developments have received limited attention. This review of evidence-based health care could, therefore, be useful to radiologists at any stage of their training or career, to encourage the practice of evidence-based radiology. The development of evidence-based health care is described, and evidence-based health care and evidence-based radiology are defined. The importance of evidence-based health care as a new approach to the practice of medicine and its importance for transdisciplinary collaboration are discussed. The skills required to practice evidence-based radiology are identified, and the roles of evidence-based radiology in radiologic practice, education, and research are discussed.