Purpose: To describe the results, complications, and follow-up data after stent placement for occlusive internal carotid arterial disease and to compare the results with those in the literature.
Materials and methods: Carotid arterial stent placement was attempted in 57 arteries in 53 patients. Thirty-six (68%) of 53 patients were symptomatic. Forty-two (79%) of 53 patients had one to three clinically important comorbidities and were considered at high risk. All patients underwent pre- and postprocedural independent neurologic examinations. Follow-up consisted of serial duplex ultrasonography and clinical assessment.
Results: The immediate technical success rate of stent deployment was 97%. Periprocedurally, three (three [5%] of 57 interventions) transient ischemic attacks and three (three [5%] of 57 interventions) minor strokes occurred. Two deaths occurred in the first 30 days (one myocardial infarction, one renal failure). One ipsilateral major stroke occurred 3 weeks after the procedure. The 30-day ipsilateral major stroke and death rate was 5% (three of 57 interventions). At 30 days, one of three patients with minor stroke had mild residual dysphasia. Treatment remained clinically successful in 48 (96%) of 50 patients. The restenosis rate was 4% (two patients).
Conclusion: Carotid arterial stent placement in a high-risk population has morbidity and mortality rates comparable to those of carotid endarterectomy in a lower risk population. Carotid arterial stent placement can be performed with a low restenosis rate.