Immunizing infants against measles at the youngest age possible has the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. The ability of infants at 6, 9, or 12 months to respond to measles and mumps vaccines was evaluated by measuring T cell proliferation, interferon-gamma production, and neutralizing antibody titers before and after vaccination. Infants in all age groups had equivalent cellular immune responses to measles or mumps viruses, with or without passive antibodies when immunized. In contrast, 6-month-old infants without passive antibodies had low geometric mean titers of antibody to measles or mumps viruses and low seroconversion rates. Geometric mean titers of antibody to measles virus increased if infants were revaccinated at 12 months. Six-month-old infants had limited humoral responses to paramyxovirus vaccines, whereas cellular immunity was equivalent to that of older infants. T cell responses can be established by immunization with these live attenuated virus vaccines during the first year, despite the presence of passive antibodies.