A positive association between latitude and prostate cancer mortality has been interpreted to indicate that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protects against development of this cancer. We aimed to examine this hypothesis. We compared exposure between 210 cases and 155 controls. Childhood sunburn (odds ratio 0.18, 95% CI 0.08-0.38), regular foreign holidays(0.41, 0.25-0.68), sunbathing score (0.83, 0.76-0.89), and low exposure to UVR (3.03, 1.59-5.78) were associated with development of prostate cancer. Furthermore, cases with low UVR exposure developed cancer at a younger median age (67.7 years, IQR 61.5-74.6) than cases with higher exposure (72.1 years, 67.5-76.4); p=0.006. These findings are compatible with UVR having a protective role against prostate cancer.