Recent anatomical studies revealed that the entopeduncular nucleus of the rat receives GABAergic inputs from both the neostriatum and the globus pallidus. The present study was undertaken to reveal the physiological features of these inputs using the intracellular recording method in rat brain slice preparations. Most of the entopeduncular nucleus neurons generated repetitive firing without spike accommodation with intracellular current stimulation and thus were classified as Type-I. A small number of neurons were classified as Type-II since they generated spikes with pronounced accommodation. Most of the Type-I, but none of Type-II, entopeduncular nucleus neurons exhibited monosynaptic GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) after stimulation of the neostriatum and the globus pallidus. Neostriatal stimulation induced long latency IPSPs while pallidal stimulation induced long latency IPSPs compounded with short latency IPSPs. The IPSPs were mediated by GABA(A) receptors. The unitary IPSPs to striatal stimulation were small while those to pallidal stimulation were large in amplitude and able to reset ongoing rhythmic firing. The short latency IPSPs induced by pallidal stimulation reversed at a somatic membrane potential that was a few millivolts more depolarized than the long latency IPSPs, suggesting that the striatal inputs were evoked in more distal portions of the neurons than the pallidal inputs. Repetitive activation of these inputs resulted in a poor amplitude summation but a prolongation of the duration of the IPSPs. The results of the present study indicate that the pallidal projection to the entopeduncular nucleus is physiologically significant and that the neostriatum and the globus pallidus play important roles in controlling the activity of the entopeduncular nucleus, although in different ways.