Purpose: To evaluate the factors of initial success in macular hole surgery.
Methods: This study included 526 eyes of 480 patients who underwent idiopathic macular hole surgery by one and the same surgeon. Surgical methods included conventional method (392 eyes), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) scalping (61 eyes), internal limiting membrane (ILM) removal (62 eyes), and RPE scalping combined with ILM removal (11 eyes). To evaluate the factors of initial success multiple regression was performed using the variables of (gender, age, stage, duration of symptoms, hole size, axial length, and preoperative visual acuity).
Results: The rate of initial success was 81.4% in all eyes, 80.9% in the conventional method, 78.7% in RPE scalping, 83.9% in ILM removal, and 100% in RPE scalping combined with ILM removal. Significant factors of initial success were as follows: gender (r = -0.091, p = 0.053), age (r = -0.14, p = 0.0062), duration of symptoms (r = -0.23, p < 0.0001), hole size (r = -0.23, p < 0.0001), and axial length (r = -0.21, p < 0.0001) in the conventional method, hole size (r = -0.56, p = 0.0006) in ILM removal and stage (r = -0.43, p = 0.0011) and preoperative visual acuity (r = 0.30, p = 0.018) in RPE scalping.
Conclusions: Significant factors of initial success were being male being young, shorter duration of symptoms, smaller hole size, and shorter axial length in the conventional method, smaller hole size in ILM removal and stage 4 and better preoperative visual acuity in RPE scalping method.